We will go into more detail below to clarify some aspects.
A part of the oral content of the original version suffers a reduction, either total or partial, in the written version in the subtitles. The editor must eliminate what is not relevant and, at the same time, reformulate what is considered most important. According to Díaz Cintas (2003: 202), the degree of reduction depends on “the linguistic nature and the original time, the frequency of changes of shots, the complexity of the text, the performance of the actors, the action in the film and the means of diffusion ”. Later Díaz Cintas and Remael (2007: 146) added that one of the reasons for this reduction was due, in part, to the fact that hearing capacity is greater than reading capacity. Thus, to guarantee correct comprehension, a comfortable reading speed for the viewer must be taken into account; the viewer at the same time has to make an effort to assimilate the images with the content and read the subtitles. Reading the subtitles should never provoke a reading effort, otherwise the viewer will not enjoy it. Another aspect that influences is the degree of similarity and difference between the syntax of the original language and the target language, since depending on the degree of reduction, it will be less or greater. Next, we will detail the types of reduction that exist.
Partial reduction (Condensation): This strategy consists of summarizing, synthesizing or paraphrasing the original message. We can do this by using short words, using simple syntactic structures, substituting nouns or noun phrases for pronouns, changing passive sentences to the active voice or merging two sentences into one, etc. The main function of the subtitler is to ensure that there is harmony between the original dialogue and the translation at three levels: “semantic, maintaining the same semantic load as the original; pragmatic, keeping the function of the original; and stylistic, maintaining the style features of the original ”(Díaz Cintas, 2003: 208).
Convert direct object into subject: That made him a very dear person to my family / That made my family love him
Simplify comparatives and superlatives: I feel so much hatred coming from her that I feel like running / I feel so much hatred coming from her
Replace prepositional phrase with adverbs: The field is beautiful at this time / The field is beautiful now
Replace adjective phrase with adjective: I wish you a life full of happiness / I wish you a happy life
Delete noun if the adjective can work alone: The table is blue / The table is blue
Total reduction (Omission): In this case, the translator has to eliminate certain aspects or linguistic elements of the original in order to create concise subtitles.